Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM that is detected in late gestation affects placental function to a greater extent. Moreover many studies suggest that diabetic placental changes are. Placental abruption (abruptio placentae) is an uncommon yet serious complication of pregnancy. The placenta develops in the uterus during. FOREX TRADING SYSTEM 96 PERCENT WINNERS ONLY
She was 32 and, because of her history, she was taking baby aspirin daily. It helps vessels better attach to the uterus and remain open during the pregnancy, studies indicate. A week after delivery, she was still swollen, never really lost the fluids after giving birth, felt tired and was short of breath.
Her blood pressure was high. She ended up hospitalized for 72 hours to receive magnesium to prevent seizures. The experience made her a more in-tune physician. Placenta Previa Placenta previa occurs when the placenta blocks or partially blocks the cervix, which is the opening to the uterus.
This is an issue because a baby passes through the cervix and the birth canal during a vaginal delivery. Symptoms for this condition include cramps and bleeding typically after 20 weeks. Treatment involves medication, pelvic rest, and activity restrictions, including sex. Placenta Abruption A highly dangerous condition for both mom and baby, placenta abruption occurs when the placenta separates prematurely from the uterine wall.
That may usher in transfusions, kidney failure, blood clotting issues or a hysterectomy. Sometimes it occurs when the mom experiences trauma like a fall, a car accident, or a blow to the abdomen. A rapid loss of amniotic fluid, which cushions the baby in the uterus, could also be the cause. Other factors that increase the risk are: Hypertension or any high blood pressure-related conditions like preeclampsia Smoking An infection in the uterus Age, especially older than 40 It is not something you can prevent, Townsel says, but you can tamp down the risks by avoiding smoking and drug use.
If any trauma to the abdomen occurs, seek a doctor immediately. Placenta Accreta Spectrum Sometimes the placenta attaches to the uterus too well. It may even reach the bladder or wrap around the rectum. Sometimes part or all of it hangs on. Abstract Objective Studies in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle suggest that impaired insulin action is due to defects in the insulin signaling pathway and may play a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance associated with gestational diabetes mellitus GDM and obesity.
Introduction The second half of human pregnancy is an insulin resistant state in which glucose tolerance is weakened. When the accompanying increase in insulin levels in maternal serum is inadequate to accommodate this, overt gestational diabetes mellitus GDM arises.
GDM is a maternal complication defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy 1. Although it is characterised by greater insulin resistance, little is known of the cellular mechanisms underlying GDM. GDM is a fundamental source for several maternal and fetal complications. Although most women with GDM return to normal glucose tolerance after delivery, some individuals have an increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus T2DM later in life 4 and consequently, GDM is classified as a pre-diabetic state.
The incidence of T2DM later in life is even greater if obesity is present 5 , 6 , 7. The offspring of women with GDM are prone to adverse side-effects, primarily undue fat accumulation, a manifestation strongly linked with fetal death, prematurity, birth trauma, and respiratory distress syndrome. Moreover, offspring have a higher risk of developing obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM later in their adult life 8 , 9.
Insulin signaling is critical for the regulation of intracellular and blood glucose levels. Activation of the insulin signaling pathway involves insulin binding to the insulin receptor IR , which results in receptor auto-phosphorylation on cytoplasmic tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of IR substrates IRS. PI3-K proteins are a family of heterodimeric lipid kinases that consist of a regulatory p85 and a catalytic unit p They have the ability to regulate, among others, glucose uptake by inducing end point events such as glucose transporter GLUT -4 translocation.
Consequently, their functionality is critical for the intracellular regulation of glucose levels While alterations in the number of insulin binding sites reflecting IR expression in the placenta have been known in various forms of maternal diabetes mellitus 11 , a paucity of data is available on insulin signaling proteins and their expression in placental tissue. Previous studies in insulin-sensitive maternal peripheral tissues have demonstrated altered expression in the focal proteins involved in insulin signaling in GDM Similar results have been found in adipose tissue and adipocytes extracted from GDM patients associated with a decrease in IRS-1 protein expression The insulin signaling cascade results in the uptake of glucose by the cell, a vital step for maintaining euglycaemia within individuals.
This involves the translocation of GLUTs from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane, allowing glucose uptake by the cell. Studies have demonstrated diminished glucose uptake in placental tissue from individuals with GDM 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 and furthermore, increased expression of GLUT-1 in placenta basal membranes from GDM women in comparison with normal controls 23 , Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether mRNA and protein expression of insulin signaling and downstream glucose transport are altered in placental tissue from women with GDM.
Furthermore, as obesity is a risk factor for T2DM, and GDM women have increased risk T2DM later in life, we investigated insulin signaling components in normal obese patients in comparison with normal non-obese controls to determine the sole affects of obesity on insulin signaling. Increased knowledge of the possible defects present in the insulin signaling pathway may lead to identification of molecular targets critical for maintaining optimal glucose regulation.
Criterion 7. Women with any underlying medical conditions such as asthma, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pre-eclampsia, and macrovascular complications were excluded from the study. Tissue was collected as previously described 27 , 28 , Briefly, placenta was obtained within 10 min of delivery.
A placental lobule cotyledon was removed from the central region of the placenta. The basal plate and chorionic surface were removed from the cotyledon, and villous tissue was obtained from the middle cross-section.
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